Different Types of Ships: Ship Owners Market
A bulk carrier is a cargo vessel designed to transport solid bulk cargo (grain, coal, iron ore, bauxite, phosphates and nitrates.)
Bulk carriers are vessels of simple construction, equipped with several holds and watertight closings (hatch covers). They have only one deck.
Vessels can be:
- very specialized (ore carriers adapted for transporting heavy minerals)
- multi-purpose (bulk carriers, bulk ore carriers)
Bulk carriers are commonly divided into four size categories:
- Handysize: from 10,000 to 35,000 tons
- Handymax: from 35,000 to 50,000 tons
- Panamax: from 50,000 to 80,000 tons
- Capesize: more than 120,000 tons
- Damage to holds and hatch covers caused by handling equipment.
- Reduced awareness on the part of ship owners to safety and maintenance issues, due to reduced pressure from charterers and authorities because this type of ship poses fewer environmental risks than tankers do.
- More rapid weakening of structures as a result of the density of cargo loads.
The container ship is a cargo vessel designed to transport containers. The capacity of a container ship is indicated in TEU (twenty-foot equivalent unit). TEU refers to the length of the standardized container ship (about 6 meters). Container ships can be loaded in open-air holds (open top) or in holds with hatch covers in which other containers are stacked. The largest container ships now reach the height of 400 meters able to transport up to 15,000 containers.
Many container ships do not have handling equipment as most major terminals are equipped with stern gantries. When ships serve ports that are not provided with handling materials, they are equipped with cranes.
Below deck, containers are stacked one over the other in slots made with sliding rails. On deck, the number of container floors (or ship container shelves) is limited for reasons of stability and visibility. During a voyage, the containers are secured to hold them in place.
- Loss of containers.
- Risks associated with more frequent maneuvers, due to the large number of stops.
Carriers of Heavy Cargo
A Carrier of heavy cargo is a cargo vessel especially designed to carry cumbersome or unusually heavy cargo such as windmills, locomotives, cranes, oil rigs...
Among carriers of heavy loads, there are:
- Semi-submersibles that have the ability to plunge into water (by ballast filling) in order to load the package.
- Conventional vessels with high-capacity cranes.
- Loss of stability during loading.
- No heavy cargo stowage that can cause the vessel’s loss of stability during its navigation.
- Damage to the ship and cargo during handling operations.
Gas carriers are tankers equipped with sophisticated materials for transporting gas (LPG or LNG).
LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LNG: Liquefied Natural Gas
- Natural gas is transported in its liquid state at a low temperature (-162 ° C) to reduce its volume and thus increase transport capacity. In its liquid state, natural gas represents a volume 600 times smaller than the volume in its gaseous state.
- The liquefied petroleum gas may be transported refrigerated (e.g. at -45 °C for the butane) or at a room temperature, the pressure of which is close to atmospheric pressure. The gas can also be transported under pressure. In the case of high pressures, the tanks are spherical in shape to resist this pressure.
Risks associated with the safe transportation of gas.
Chemical tankers are divided into several broad categories:
- Oil tankers / Chemical tankers
They carry both refined oil and chemical products in different tanks. The products they transport are numerous derivatives from oil as well as derivatives from "easy" chemicals, that is; chemical products that are not too dangerous, like octane or xylene.
- Multipurpose chemical tankers or parcel tankers
They transport many different products at atmospheric pressure. Each tank is equipped with its submersible pump and its own piping system.
- Specialized chemical tankers
These vessels carry only one type of product with specific properties for which they are especially designed. Most often, they have a cargo heating system or a specialized coating. In carrying only one type of product, the risk of the goods being contaminated is avoided.
- Freight claims in case of cargo pollution or poor cleaning of tanks between two loadings.
- Risks related to the safety of transported goods.
- Increased risks related to cabotage (from one industrial zone to another).
Ro-ro ships are vessels designed to transport vehicles and other wheeled vehicles.
Ro-ro ships are characterized by the presence of a main deck extending over the greatest possible length, located near the operating waterlines; this is to facilitate access by means of a rear ramp, without excessive constraints due to dock height or tide amplitude. Garages extend over almost the entire length of the ship, moving from one car-deck to another, by ramps (or car deck) or by elevator.
Ro-ro ships are equipped with fixed lashing equipment on decks (sockets, rings), bulkheads (rings) and on ceilings.
Access to the vessel can be done in different ways: by door and ramp at the front (in the case of ferries / car ferries), by lateral door and ramp (on the shell plating), or by rear door and ramp.
Among ro-ro ships, there are pure ro-ro ships, ferries, car carriers, heavy cargo ro-ro ships, container ro-ro ships.
-Risk of fire in the ship’s garage.
A passenger ship is a vessel designed to carry passengers, who either wish to cross an ocean, river or to join a cruise.
A cruise ship is a vessel whose purpose is to provide sea tourist travel. This type of ship typically sails at night to allow passengers to enjoy stopovers during the day for sightseeing. The size of cruise ships range from ten to several thousand passengers.
Vessels designed for crossings are mostly car ferries. These ships have the characteristics of ro-ro ships which have the capability to board passengers.
- Fire risks in passenger areas (mainly in cabins).
- Risks related to specific navigation zones (near the coasts, unusual areas...).
A lay-up vessel is a vessel whose commercial activity is stopped temporarily. Its staff is therefore reduced to a bare minimum in accordance with the requirements of its flag. The State of the area or zone where the vessel is laid-up is also entitled to inspect the lay-up conditions; likewise, the ship classification society imposes its rules on the matter.
There are several cases: hot lay-up vessel (up to 12 months of lay-up), cold lay-up vessel (from 1 to 5 years) and long-term lay-up vessel (> 5 years).
The lay-up duration will determine the established procedures and lay-up conditions of the ship such as:
- The lay-up area of the vessel must be located away from wind, strong currents and heaves.
- Necessary precautions adapted to the area and lay-up duration of the vessel must be taken.
- The time required to put back the vessel into operation depends on the lay-up period and on measures taken during this period:
- For a lay-up between 1 and 3 months: about 24 hours are necessary for the ship’s reactivation.
- For a lay-up between 3 and 12 months: about 1 week.
- For a lay-up between 1 and 5 years: about 1 month.
- For a lay-up of more than 5 years: about 3 months .